File1, 2, & 3 for achandler2:


File1, 2, & 3 for achandler2:


Starship and Super Heavy are the biggest, most important piece of Elon
Musk's grand plan for SpaceX, his private spaceflight company. Musk has
repeatedly stressed that he founded SpaceX back in 2002 primarily to help
humanity colonize Mars. It's vital that we become a multiplanet species,
the billionaire entrepreneur has said, citing both a much-reduced
probability of extinction and the thrill that meaningful space exploration
will deliver to billions of people around the world. SpaceX is now
actively to turn this sci-fi dream into reality. The company is developing
a 100-passenger spaceship called Starship and a giant rocket known as Super
Heavy, which together constitute the transporation system taht Musk thinks
will bring Mars settlement within reach at long last."This is the fastest
path to a self-sustaining city on Mars," Musk said in September 2019,
during a webcast update about the Starship-Super Heavy architecture.
These updates have become a higly anticipated annual tradition; Musk has
given one every September since 2016. During that first presentation, he
laid out the basic idea: A large spacecraft into Earth orbit, then come
back down to Earth for a vertical, propulsive landing. The spaceship
meanwhile, will make its own way from Earth orbit to Mars(or the moon, or
any other desired destination). The craft will touch down on such alien
worlds and take off from them as well, without the need for any addition
landing craft or ascent vehicles.(The separate rocket is needed just to
get out of Earth's substantial gravity well.)
Off-Earth refuling of the ship is therefore key to Musk's vision. For
example, spacecraft coming home from Mars or the moon will need to be
topped up on those worlds, using locally produced propellant. In 2016,
Musk called this architecture the Interplanetary Transport System (ITS).
The name was new, as the billionaire had previously referred to his
envisioned concept(through much more vaguely) as the Mars Colonial
Transporter. The ITS will stand 400 feet (122 meters) tell when stacked,
Musk said back then. The rocket will contribute most of that height,
measuring 254 feet (77 meters) tall to the ship's 162 feet (49m).
There will be some overlap of the two vehicles during stacking, which
explains why the total height isn't 416 feet.


Musk did not lay out plans for building this city. That will happen
organically as more and more people arrive on Mars, he said that comparing
the ITS to the transcontinental railroad that helped open the American
west to settlement from the East and Midwest in the 19th century. And
these pioneers won't just be the super-rich, if all goes according to
plan. the ITS's reusability could eventually bring the peice of a Mars
trip down enough to make it affordable for large numbers of people, Musk
said. "The architecture allows for a cost per ticket of less than
$200,000," Musk said during the 2016 presentation. "We think that the
cost of moving to Mars ultimately could drop below $100,000."
This overall vision has held firm over the past three years, but Musk has
repeatedly tweaked the design and the system's name. In 2017, for example,
he announced that ITS was the now the BFR, which stood for "Big Falcon
Rocket". The BFR was shorter, slimmer and less powerful that its designed
predecessor, measuring 348 feet (106 m) tall by 30 feet (9 m) wide then
stacked and featuring "only" 31 Raptor engines on the booster and six on
the spaceship. But the biggest change concerned use of the
spaceship-rocket duo. Musk announced that SpaceX eventually planned to
emply the BFR for all of its spaceflight needs, from launching satellites
to ferrying people to and from Mars to cleaning up space junk in Earth
orbit. The Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy therefore will be phased out over
the long haul, as will both the crew and cargo variants of SpaceX's
Dragon capsule.
Expanding the BFR's role in this manner will make the system much for
affordable for SpaceX to develop and manufacture, Musk said at the time.
"If we can do that, then all the resources that are used for Falcon 9,
Heavy and Dragon can be applied to this system. That's really fundamental,
he said in September 2017. "We believe that we can do this with the
revenue we receive for launching satellites and for servicing the space
station. The BFR design then experienced a growth spurt that nearly took
the system back to its original height. In September 2018, Musk told us
that the rocket-spaceship due will new stand 387 feet (118 m) tall when
stacked. The BFR ship will also sport seven Raptors instead of six, Musk
added, and the vehicle will now sport four movable fins - two near its
nose and two bigger ones near the tail.


These fins will help the ship maneuver its way to safe landings on worlds
with significant atmospheres, such as Mars and Earth. The two rear fins
will also serve as landing pads, as will a lag that's stylized to look
like a fin, Musk said. The ship's overall aesthetic will therefore
resemble that of the rocket used by the cartoon character Tintin in the
1954 adventure "Explorers on the Moon." And that tidbit pleases Musk.
"I love the Tintin rocket design, so I kind of wanted to bias it towards
that," he said at the time. "If in doubt, go with Tintin." Other big news
came out of the September 2018 update as well: SpaceX had signed it's
first BFR customer. Japanese billionare Yusaku Maezawa booked a
round-the-moon trip on the BFR, with a target launch date of 2023.
Maezawa said he planned to take a handful of artists with him on the
mission which he calls DearMoon. Neither SpaceX nor Maezawa has revealed
how much the flight will cost.
Two months later, the BFR was no more: Musk told us that the system will
now be called Starship. that will also be the spaceship's name, whereas
the huge rocket will be called the Super Heavy. At that point, SpaceX
still planned to but the Starship vehicle out of carbon fiber. But in
January 2019, Musk announced that he was switching to stainless steel.
Steel is a bit heavier than carbon fiber but has great thermal properties
and is far, far cheaper, Musk said. He has since called the material
switch the biggest design change yet made on the ITS/BFR/Starship project.
In May 2019, Musk said the current plan calls for six Raptors on the
Starship vehicle rather than seven. And a few months later, he tweeted
that Super Heavy will now sport 35 Raptors instead of 31. That brings us
to the latest design update, which Musk presented on Sept. 28, 2019, from
SpaceX's South Texas facility, near the tiny village of Boca Chica. the
billionare didn't announce any huge changes, though there was some more
engine news: Super Heavy will now have space for 37 Raptors, though not
all of those slots will be filled on every flight. Each mission will
probably require at least 24 Raptors on the booster, Musk said.
Musk had previously estimated the total deevelopment cost of the Starship
project to be between $2 billion and $10 billion. On Sept. 28, he said he
now believes the price tag for SpaceX will be toward the lower end of
that range - "probably closer to two or three[billion] than it is to 10,"
Musk told CNN Business during an interview shortly after the design update.

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