In today's day and time no one hardly ever uses a paper map anymore. GPS, also known as Navstar GPS, has been a technological invention that has changed the way we travel offcially since about 1993. This particular paper will focus on three specific navigation applications: Google Maps, Apple Maps, and Waze. It is interesting because Google Maps is geared towards Androids, Apple Maps are geared towards Apple, and Waze can be downloaded on any device, as can the other two. They all have their pros, cons, and features but they all strive to achieve the same goal of providing precise and user friendly navigation when treaveling. Also we will explore the market share and current advances in technology via in vehicle navigation systems. GPS, Global Positioning System, has an interesting history, in which started about the 1960's. According to Wikipedia, a global navigation satellite system provides geolocation and time information to a GPS reciever in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Interestingl enough GPS, "Originally designed for miliary intelligence applications at the height of the Cold War in the 1960's with inspraion coming from the launch of the Soviet Spacecraft Sputnik in 1957." It amazes me to see how vast technology grows. What is intended for one purpose can be expanded towards other efforts. In this case what was intended for top secret militay intelligence is now used for the average everyday person for recreational purposes. I think we tend to forget where GPS signals come from, and that is satellites. They orbit the Earth and they beam signals down."These signals carry a time code and geopraphica data point that allows the user to pinpoint theri exact position, speed ant time anywhere on the planet." There were originaly only a few satellites but now there are thirty operational satellites in the GPS constellation. Also, to further expound upon recreational uses, it is used for, "dozens of navigation applications, route finding for drivers, map-thinking, earthquake research, climate studies, and an outdoor treasure-hunting game know as geocatching." The earliest navigtion methods involved observing landmarks or watching the direction of the sun and starts. Now that we have a basis of GPS we will now dive into specific GPS Applications; Google, Apple, and Waze. Google Maps is a desktop web mapping service developed by Google. I offers satellite imagery, street maps, 360 degree panoramic views of streets (Street View) real-time traffic conditions (Google Traffic), and rout planning for traveling by foot, car, bicycle (in beta), or public transportaion. Also, Google Maps started as a C++ application but then Google acquired it in 2004 and converted it to a web application. The service's front end utalizes JavaScritp, XML, and Ajax. Google Maps offers an API that allows maps to be embedded on third-party websites, and offers a locator for urban businesses and other organizations in numerous countries around the world. In August 2013, it was determined to be the world's most popular app for smartphones, with over 54% of global smartphone owners using it at least once. Google Maps monitors real-time traffic to help find the best route to your destination. Some features include, street views, indoor maps, and reviews and photos from locals. Home and work addresses can be saved in Google Maps and they will auto-populate for faster searching. Google bought Skybox, a high-resolution satellite imagery company for $500 million to improve the accuracy of its maps. Google employs what has been described as a small army of human operators to manualy chek the maps and correct any errors. So the accuracy of Google maps is quite on point. Apple is still trying to catch up to the accuracy of Google maps. This application provides the est routes for walking, driving, public transport and even cycling, which is more than Apple's driving and walking. As far as turn navigation goes Google is still officially in beta, and you can control Google Maps turn-by-turn navigation by tapping the microphone on the top right hand side of the app and stating your action. Apple Maps is a web mapping service developed by Apple Inc. It is the default map system of iOS, macOS, and watchOS. Apparently is also features the unique 'Flyovers' mode, a feature that enables a user to explore densely populated urban centers in a 3D landscape composed of models of building and structures. Apple had aquired the company Placebase, then two years lated aquired two more mapping related companies who specialized in 3D maps: Poly9 in 2010 and C3 Technologies. Apple has embarked on a long journey, and faced many adversaries. They are currently becoming more competitive with Google Maps. Apple Mps uses vector graphics, which allows the application to use less data than competitor Google Mpas. There is a feature called Proactive suggestions that now predicts the places you're most likely to go and suggest gthe fastest way to get there based on traffic, your current location, the time of day, and events on your scheduale. The app also features new third-party app extension, like Lyft, Uber, and OneTable that can all be accessed without leaving the app. Also another addition that Apple has is Siri. Siri, at the command of your voice, can take you to Maps immediately and guide you along the fastest route. On the other hand, the navigation application Waze, is quite differet than Google or Apple Maps. Waze is the world's largest community-based traffic and navigation app. The app s only as successful as the people that use it. "Imagine millions of drivers out in the roads, working together towards a common goal: to outsmart traffic and get everyone the best route to work and back every day. Unlike the other apps you get alerted before you approach police, roadkill, vehicles on the side of the road, construcion, and accidents. It also features coordination with driving to your destination with friends via Facebook, as well as finding the cheapest gas staion."Waze Mobile was founded in Israel, funded by early-stage American venture capital firm Bluerun Ventures, and eventually acquired by Google in 2013." Waze supports Andriod, iPhone, Symbian, Blackberry 10 (except BlackBerryQ10), Windows Phone 8, and Windows mobile from version 5. There were nearly 50 million Waze users as of June 2013. The only downfall to Waze is the road-safety hazard. Advocates have voiced concern over the prospect of more drivers using Waze, which they say has the potential to distract them with a flurry of icons and notifications and put them at greater risk of an accident. As far as licensing is concerned, "The last open source client version for the iPhone and Android is 2.4.0.0, and for Windows Mobile 2.0." In summary all of these navigation applications have many things in common as well as a few differences. They all can be downloaded for free, and provide accurate navigation for traveling. They share differences such as in features and settings. Google mpas has the widest range of navigation for driving, while the other two will simply notify you of traffic jams. Market share for Google Maps has 49.6% while Apple Maps has 28.3%. A test was done the fourth of July weekend to test which of the navigation apps provided the fastest way to their destination by CNBC. Three people participated in the study and each of them used one of the thress navigation applications, Google, Apple, and Waze maps. Google Maps was the most accurate predictor based on their driving, closely followed by Waze. Gar behind was Apple Maps. It was also interesting to see the ETA of the destinations. All of the applications used different algorithm in order to calculate them. The article stated that even though Google bought Waze they are still two different applications. Also, in vehicle navigation is on the rise todya. Many sources we spoke with say PNDS and dedicated vehice GPS systems are no longer necessary thanks to the prvalence of mobile apps for navigation. That is true because with the ease of access to use your phone or tablet, what will happen to it being in the car industry? Market saturation and phone apps have caused a decline. One often has to pay extra for the technology package and pay to have the most up to date version. Original equipment manufacures like QNX, which supplies the underlying GPS systems for many of today's auto companies, are working to improve this process. Interestingly, open-source softwar like Linux and HTML5 code are increasinly coming into play. Also it was intersing to find out that, QNX lets automakers tap into Linux community, whithout the scenario of being hacked because of open-source. In conclusion, overall Google Maps has the dominate hand in the GPS world.