OVERVIEW

Programming Languages are in high demand in today's market place. Throughout the website, the audience will get to acknowledge the position each languagehas in the marketing. Audience will also get to know the history, the present and future of top and second tier programming languages. Also, there will be highlight about new emerging programming languages in the coming future.

TECHNICAL BRIEF

Introduction

A programming language is a computer language which is designed to communicate instructions to computer. The purpose of the programming language is that it is used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms (Programming Language). Programming language is split between two components which are syntax in another word it is called form and secondly, semanatics also known as meaning (Programming Language). The scope of programming languages in the IT industry is growing and throughout the paper the audience will get to knowthe impact of programming language in the IT industry and the development of new programming language and their scope in the future.

C# Programming Language

C# was first designed by Anders Hejlsberg which consisted of syntax of popular object oriented language Java as the base (Jamshid Hashimi). C# was developed by Microsoft with .NET framework and was later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC) (Jamshid Hashimi). C++ language has "++" which indicated upper version of C and supports Object Oriented programming named as C++, meaning C + 1 (Jamshid Hashimi). C# was named with the formula consisting C# = (C++)++, meaning (# consisted of 4 +) (Jamshid Hashimi).

C# clarifies many complications of C++ and provides many powerful features such as nullable value types, enumerations, delegates, lambda expressions and direct memory access (Jamshid Hashimi). C# has improved over the years and introduced to many of its versions. C# 2.0 consisted: generics, partial types, anonymous methods, iterators, nullable types, getter/setter separate accessibility, method group conversions (delegates), covariance and contra-variance and static classes (Jamshid Hashimi). C# 3.0 consisted: implicity typed local variables, object and collection initializers, auto-implemented properties, anonymous types, extension methods, query expressions, lambda expressions, expression trees and partial methods (Jamshid Hashimi). C# 4.0 consisted: dynamic binding, named and optional arguments, generic co- and contravariance and embedded interop types ("NoPIA") (Jamshid Hashimi).

C# 5.0 consisted: Asynchronous methods and caller info attributes. Future C# 5.0 will consists: compiler-as-a-service (Roslyn), C# 6.0 has planned/done, declaration expressions, important of stataic type members into namespace, exception filters, await in catch/ finally blocks, default values for getter-only properties, expression-bodied members, parameter arrays for IEnumerable interfaces, null propagator (Succinct null checking) and binary literals and digit separators (Jamshid Hashimi).

Future of C#is very bright mainly because of its new features. You can now write C# in any editor and it is also open source. C# now runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux. "C# can be used to build Windows client apps, Windows Store apps, iOS apps, and Android aps and can also be used to build backend and middle-tier framework and libraries" (Mahesh Chand). "Roslyn, C# engine can support all IDEs and editors, all the linters and analysis tools, all the fixing and refactoring and code generation tools, all the scripting and all the REPLs. C# 7 comes with new features including tuples, record types, and pattern matching" (Mahesh Chand).

Java Programming Language

Java programming language was first evolved from a language called Oak. Oak was a platform- independent language developed in early nineties at Sun Microsystems (The Java Programming Language). The aim of Oak programming language was to allow entertainment appliances such as video game consoles and VCRs to communicate (The Java Programming Language). Oak was first appeared in television set-top boxes to provide video-on-demand services which later in the years was failing (The Java Programming Language). During the failure of set-top boxes, the World Wide Web was coming into the light which later the developers of Oak shifted their interest to the Internet and WebRunner, and Oak-enabled browser (The Java Programming Language). Later, Oak's name was changed to Java and WebRunner's to HotJava web browser (The Java Programming Language).

Java consists of many features and some of the features include: Platform independence- Java compilers produce 'byte code' instructions for the Java Virutal Machine (JVM), thus the same compiled byte code will run unmodified on any platform supporting Java (The Java Programming Language). Object Orientation- Java is an object-oriented language meaning everything is descended from a root object class (The Java Programming Language). Rich Standard Library- Java includes many of the classes and methods into six major functional areas including: language support, utility, input/output, networking, abstract window toolkit and applet (The Java Programming Language). Applet interface- this feature allows Java developers to create programs that can be downloaded from a web page and later runs on a client browser (The Java Programming Language). Familiar C++ like Syntax- the rapid adoption of Java is because similar Java syntax to the popular C++ programming language. Garbage Collection: "Java does not require programmers to explicity free dynamically allocate memory. This makes Java programs easiser to write and less prone to memory erros" (The Java Programming Language).

Java is the most popular language and it can continue to grow for the next 10-15 years. Another reason it is popular is because it contains massive array of open souce and commercial libraries. JIT compiled code on modern JVMs make Java one of the fastest language. Java is the only language used by many of the big corporate industries such as Google, Oracle, IBM, the Apache Software Federation etc. "Android is giving a major boost to Java in the mobile space. Lots of startups are targeting this, and it's not unreasonable to expect that mobile startups will also have good reason to pick Java on the server side as well" (Will Java Still Be Relevant in 5 Years?).

Swift Programming Language

Swift programming language was developed in July 2010 by Chris Lattner, created for iOS, OS X, watchOS, tvOS and Linux was developed by Apple Inc. Swift is a combination of languages such as: Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Phython, C#, CLU etc (Live Coding). To improve the performance of Swift, two frameworks were emerged, Perfect and Vapor. "Perfect provides simple server/client side exchange, whilst Vapor is a Rails / Laravel inspired MVC framework for Swift web applications" (Live Coding). Swift also introduced several tools for the betterment of the cross-platform and these tools include: Xcode which is integrated the platforms such as Cocoa and Cocoa Touch. Xcode is an incredible tool for building apps for Mac, iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch and Apple TV.

SwiftJson or JavaScript Object Notation is another tool used in Swift to transmit data to and from web servers. It is the most popular tool to use because it is simple to use and is humanreadable. PhoneGap is tool for building cross-platform mobile apps with standards-based Web technologies like HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. GHUnit is test framework tool used to Mac OS X and iOS which can be used as standalone or with other testing frameworks like SenTestingKit or GTM. Eureka in Swift is a library to create dynamic table-view forms from a DSL specification.DSL consists of Rows, Sections, and Forms. RX swift is another tool used for generic abstraction of computation exprressed through Observable interface (Live Coding).

The future of Swift aims to focus on stability and cross platform consistency which will include in version 3 and some of the features are: Core library improvements, improvements to the Application Binary Inerface (ABI), that is the interface between libraries and host OS, resilience and portability and consistency and consolidation of code and standards (Chris Ward). Future of Swift also prevails that there is possibility of writing Swift that will also run of Android. Elements Compiler such as Fire / Silver and Clion form JetBrains supports Swift, C++ and C code which creates an option for these IDs to compile code to the target platform's native language. Another approach that can take place is if a platform has a C compiler which also includes Android NDK, then it's possible to run Swfit into compiling on any platforms (Chris Ward).

Emerging Programming Language

Programming languages falls into the category of three tiers. The top tier consists of languages such as: Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, C#, C++, and Objective C. The second tier consist of Scala, Go, Swift, Clojure and Haskell. The third tier consists of emerging languages such as: Elm, Rust, Kotlin, Crystal and Elixir (Tech Beacon). Elm transpiles to JavaScript making the language popular within the JavaScript community. Rust is fastest growing systems programming language among web developer because it is meant to replace C and C++ development. Rustwas created at Mozilla. Moreover, Rust was crowned the "most loved" technology in StackOverflow's 2016 developer survey, which means lot of users want to keep using language (Tech Beacon).

Kotlin was originated at JetBrains who are the makers of IntelliJ IDEA IDE. Kotlin is another emerging language mostly because it has been around for about five years and now it has finally reached the production with 1.0 version this year. Kotlin has a bright future because you can easily build Android apps with it (Tech Beacon). Crystal is another emerging language with bright future because it aims mostly at Ruby community with similar syntax. Ruby is continuing to grow which could help Crystal take the performance to the next level. Elixir is another language like Ruby, but it focuses more on creating high-availability low-latency systems. The Phoenix application framework runs for Elixir which makes one of the emerging programming languages (Tech Beacon).

Conclusion

With the modern new technologies evolving in today's economy and the growth of smartphones and tablets makes IT industry competitive. Programmers are high in demand as the market of programming industry is growing and it will hold a strong place in the future. It is a good idea for rising programmers or application developers to have skills in top tier programming languages as the new emerging programming languages are based on the concept of them and have a growing career as developers with the skills set of old and emerging programming languages.

STATISTICS

Programming Languages Rating 2016

Java (18.755%)
C (9.203%)
C++ (5.415%)
C# (3.659%)
Python (3.567%)
Visual Basics .NET (3.167%)
PHP (3.125%)
JavaScript (2.705%)
Assembly language (2.441%)
Perl (2.361%)
Objective-C (2.246%)
Swift (2.039%)
Go (2.001%)
Ruby (1.978%)
MATLAB (1.967%)
Delphi/Object Pascal (1.950%)
Visual Basics (1.923%)
Groovy (1.811%)
R (1.715%)
PL/SQL (1.512%)

SEMANTIC MARKUP

What is Semantic Markup

"Semantic markup is markup that is descriptive enough to allow us and the machines we to recognize it and make decisiions about it. In other words, markup means something when we can identify it and do useful things with it. In this way, semantic markup becomes more than merely descriptive. It becomes a brilliant mechanism that allows both humans and machinees to "understand" the same information"

Section 508-Accessibility

The United States Workforce Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has Section 508 amendment which mandaets that all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the federal government be accessible to people with disabilities. The federal sector of 508 is limited to binding, enforcceable standards, as well as compliance reporting requirements and complaint procedure. Each country have different set of policies regarding Section 508, for example European Union (EU) have adopted standards based on the Web Content Accessibility Guideline of the World Wide Web Consortium

SEO

SEO also known as search engine optimization or search engine optimizer is a strategies and tactics used to increase the amount of visitors to a website by obtaining a high-ranking placement in the search results page of a search engine which includes Google, Bing, Yahoo and many other search engines.

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