The purpose of this website is to give information on smartphones, which includes the comparison and difference of two operating systems, Apple and Android, the impact that smartphones have on the world as a whole, and the future of smartphones. This website shows the past and present of smartphones based on the facts and statistics of the market. At the end of the technical brief, it will summarize the earliest part of a smartphone to the future.

Simon Personal Communicator

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iPhone 7

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Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge

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Samrtphones are one of the center points of technology. Smartphones has been around for a while. Apple and Android are the largest operating systems for smartphones. Their market size has been growing over time. Smartphones has impacted users in positive and negative ways. Since smartphones are changing by the minute, there wil be always a faster and smarter phone.

In the earlier 1990s, many users began to carry personal digital assistants (PDA), which ran on Palm OS and Blackberry OS (A Brief History of Smartphones, 2014). In 1994, the first smartphone was the Simon Personal Communicator. This device was very big and expensive. The phone "measured 8 inches long by 2.5 inches wide by 1.5 inches thick, and weighted two ounces north of a pound." The price ranged from $600 to $1,100. Simon Personal Communicator had some based apps such as a calculator, ccalendar, fax, email, note pad, etc. (Aamoth, 2014). Qualcomm developed a smartphone that features Palm PDA with internet access (A Brief History of Smartphones, 2014). Smartphons in the 1990s played a major part for today's smartphones, Apple and Android.

In 2005, Steve Jobs and Ed Zander, who was the CEO of Motorola, released the first mobile phone, ROKR E1, to use iTunes. However, Jobs was not pleased with releasing a non-Apple product and working with Zander because this prohibited Apple from designing the product they really wanted to create. The following year, Apple did not support the ROKR device and released an updated version of iTunes. Motorola CEO "inspired" Jobs with their smartphone concept and multimedia. Therefore, Apple produced their money making product, the iPhone. The first iPhone was released on June 29, 2007 (History of iPhone, 2016). Over five quarters, 6.1 miliion first generation iPhone units were sold. In 2008, Apple was "the third largest mobile phone manufacturer by revenue" because Blackberry sales of 5.2 million units were momentarily surpassed in the fourth quarter. The overall profit of cellphone sales more than 50% was generated by Apple. In the third quarter of 2010, 14.1 million smartphones were sold by Apple. By the end of this period, iPhones sold a total of 73.5 million. Apple iOS was the second operating system that shipped smartphones for 26.2% of the market. Apple sold 5.5 million iPhones, which made it the most popular device in the third quarter of 2010 (iPhone, 2016). The iPhone 7 was released in September of 2016. The difference between the iPhone 7 and the other iPhones are the features, hardware, etc. Aple removed the headphone jack altogether and replace it with a Lightning port and stereo speakers. The iPhone 7 is also waterproof. Apple upgraded their camera on the iPhone 7 with a new 12-megapixel sensor and six-element lens. This upgrade will improve its performance such as the quality of a picture, the flash, video recording, etc. iPhone 7 has a new processor, A10 Fusion. This processor is "40 percent faster than the A9 and two-times faster than the A8." The GPU claims to improve the performance (O'Boyle, 2016).

"Android is an open source operating system written in Linux and basically designed for smartphones." In 2005, Android inc. developed Android, which was bought by Google in 2008. In the same year, HTC Dream was launched, which became the first Android's smartphone. HTC Dream is also called T-Mobile G. This device had Android 1.0 operating system. The features of the smartphone were Gmail, Google Calendar, Bluetooth, and much more. The most important feature was Android Market. The Android Market had only thirty-five apps. T-Mobile G1 and Simon Personal Communicator have similar features. Android 1.1 was launched in 2009. This up-to-date software gave permission to the userrs to save socuments and fixed some bugs. Android 1.0 and Andoid 1.1 were the first two version of Android. Other versions are named after desserts for example Cupcake, Donut, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, etc. (Evolution of Android OS, 2016). The first Android-powered smartphone was launched in 2009. Also, the innovative Galaxy S was revealed in 2010. In the U.S. smartphone market, Android represented about 7% in the same year. Samsung Galaxy SII and Galaxy SIII were popular, which made the market succeed. In 2012, Samsung's market share started to weakened. However, in global areas like Europe and China are increasing in the market. In 2013, about half of Android smartphones are made by Samsung (Mattera, 2015). Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge was released in March of 2016. The differences between the Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge and other Samsung Galaxy are the features and hardware. They made some adjustments to the Edge feature such as the feature comes out twice as far on the screen than the Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge. The Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge is dust and water resistant. They increased the battery life by 600 mAh with fast charging. The battery version for this smartphone is Android 6.0.1 Marshmallow. Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge has a smaller screen, a faster and proficient processor, quicker RAM, etc. It, also, has "32GB of storage with a micro-SD slot for expansion" (Gunther, 2016).

Smartphones has made people lives more convenient in some way. Smartphones have some positive impacts on people. Some positive impacts are business and personality development, learning and career growth, and makes communication convenient. Also, it provides opportunity to learn new things (Jesensky, 2013). In 2013, the mobile economy subsidzed about 2.4 trillion dollars to the international economy, which is roughly 3.6% of global gross domestic product. "This number includes more than 10 million jobs created, and contributed at least $336 billion to public funding in the United States alone." As a result of app economy, it created approximately five hundred thousand jobs in 2012. The app economy was a major boom for the economy (How the Smartphone has Impacted Economic Development, 2016). Teachers, today, are using smartphones for learning. They will encourage students to bring their smartphone to class, so they can look up challenging vocabulary words, take a picture of an assignment, and/or set a homework reminder. Teachers use apps to help students connect better with their coursework (Shane, 2013). Before smartphones, people had to wait until they arrived home or used a pay phone. Now, people can carry and talk to anyone at any time. Smartphones allow users to video call through applications. So, the user can see who they are talking to. This makes communication fun and easier. Smartphones provide opportunity to explore new things though applications. In Android app store, users can download Arts and Culture, Amazon Kindle, Duolingo, Khan Academy, SoloLearn, YouTube, and much more. These apps teaches users about the different cultures, a second language, and almost every subject in school. Also, it allow users to read books and watch videos (Hindy, 2016).

Smartphones has many positive impacts on user; however they also have some negative effects. Some negative effects are smartphones are becoming an addicition and users are unconscious to their surroundings. Users check their smartphone very frequently. Within an hour of waking up, 70% of users check their smartphone. About 51% of users check their smartphones while on vacation (Bugbee, 2015). The temptation of being on a smartphone while driving can cause accidents. Texting while driving makes drivers unaware of thier surroundings. The sad part is that this can cause the loss of someone's life. Another negative effect is social relationships are decreasing. Users operate their smartphone in social setting like the dinner table, church, movie theaters, and events. This decreases users' vocbulary and social interaction.

Over the years, smartphones has grown in many ways. From the first smartphone that can perform the basics such as calling and texting to performing anything you can imagine. Today, the two popular operating systems are Apple and Android. These operating systems have impacted users from all over the world. Smartphones has made positive changes in schools, businesses, and communication. However, there are some negative impacts such as users are becoming addicted to their smartphones and unaware of their surroundings. Users are excited about what's coming next. Apple has already released iPhone 7, so next will be iPhone 8. The iPhone 8 will be using iOS 11 and can be upgrade to iOS 11.3.2. Also, it will have an eye and fingerprint scanner, retina display, different types of sensors, etc. The iPhone 8 will be released in the year of 2017 (Sharma, 2016). Android is most popular operating system for smartphones. The next OS version is likely to be Key Lime Pie (Evolution of Android OS, 2016). Android have several smartphones that will be released in 2017. OnePlus 4 will have Snapdragon 830 processor, OLED display, 23MP camera, USB-C and NFC support and more. Google Pixel will have two selections, the Pixel and the Pixel XL.The Pixel should have a "5-inch HD 1080p screen and a 2770mAH battery." The Pixel should feature a fingerprint scanner, 12MP camera, 5.5-inch Quad-HD OLED screen, 3450mAh battery and much more. Also, Android will be releasing the Huawei Mate 9, Lenovo Phab 2 Pro, and Nokia in 2017 (Minor, 2016).

Semantic Markup

Semantic Markup or Semantic HTML is th use of markups to support the information in web applications and webpages. It, also, maintain separation between the HTML and the graphic performance of the features contained in the document. Semantic markup is important because a CSS file can make bad markup unseen to users of the website. We write semantic markup by choosing and using HTML tags the correct way, and by choosing tags that express something about the information marked by the tags. There are four categores of semantic elements: media tags, textual meaning tags, ccorrelation tags, and document structure tags.

Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 was amended by Congress. Section 508 Law is to oblige Federal agencies to make technology accessible to people with disabilities. This helps all users to have an opportunity to enjoy technology.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of increasing the number of users to a specific website by confirming that the website appears on the top of the list of results by a search engine.


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