FFTX (Fiber to the X) is a common term for any broadband network that use optical fiber to provide all or part of the "local loop" (or known as a subscriber line) to provide the "last mile" in telecommunications. The "last mile" refers to the final leg in telecommunication that provides service to retail users. (Long, 2015 February 01) FTTX networks can be described by three words, deployability, sustainablility and scalability.
FTTN,"Fiber to The Node", is a form of fiber optic communication delivery that reaches multiple locations. The fiber extends from a central location into a subscriber's location. It is commonly used to provide service to a workspace or living location. This type of system is set up so that within a one mile radius, connections to individuals are made through DSL. It provides more distance of coverage than FTTC (Fiber to the Curb) and is inexpensive compared to FTTH (Fiber to the Home).
AON and PON
Active Optical Network, AON and Passive Optical Network, PON are two systems that are growing in popularity as data demand increase. While AON operates on a P2P (Point to Point) structure, PON operates on a PMP (Point to Multi point) structure. In AON, electrical switching equipment like a router is deployed to manage signal distribution and route data. In PON, a single fiber from a OLT (optical line terminal) and connected to ONT (optical network terminal) or ONU (optical network units).
The terminal terminates the signal along with an optical splitter to distribute the signals to users. Each system has its pros and cons. In the terms of high bandwidth possibility, AON comes out on top due to the bandwidth in each port is dedicated to each individual. However, AON systems require active equipment which means cost and power supply factor in when deploying. PON, on the other hand is free from active parts, which results in lower maintenance costs.