The database field first arose in the mid-1960s in relation to direct-access storage tape-based systems that allowed for shared interactive usage. As the market for computers grew and computers became faster and reliable, a variety of database systems materialized. Charles Bachman founded the "Database Task Group" in 1967 whom established the standard for products entering the market, called the "CODASYL approach", in 1971. Ultimately, the CODASYL approach was incredibly complicated and required programmers to go through significant training to provide competent applications. IBM had their own DBMS technology as well, known as Information Management System or IMS. IMS was different from CODASYL in that it utilized a strict hierarchy for data navigation and still remains in use today. Both of these data management systems became known as the navigational database. In the mid-1970s, IBM developed multi-table systems so that data could be split instead of being stored in one giant chunk. In 1976, the entity-relation model was developed and quickly became popular for database design. By 1978, multi-user versions had been tested by consumers and standardized query language, or SQL, had been created. Another monumental event for the database field that occurred in 1978 was the release of Larry Ellison's Oracle. In the 1990s, object-oriented programming lead to the creation of object-oriented databases.
From the 2000s to today, XML databases are the main form of databases utilized in enterprise database management and allow queries on XML document attributes and support ACID-compliant transaction processing within a highly consistent and secure environment. Today, NoSQL databases are also utilized as they do not require fixed table schema, avoid join operations, and scale data horizontally. Another modern database software is NewSQL, which is just as scalable as NoSQL and utilizes the traditional ACID. The industry for enterprise database management systems has been steadily grown over the past five years due to an increase in demand that has been caused by high business profit and investment. As the industry has been driven by more and more technical complexity and an increase in businesses wanting to incorporate efficient software, the industry revenue has grown at an annual rate of 4.9%. The industry has been fueled by large software companies purchasing and acquiring highly performing enterprise software vendors and data analytics businesses to cater to the needs of their user markets. With the enterprise software industry, companies invest when corporate profit is high and conversely when it is low. Revenue in the industry is estimated to be at $40.2 billion while profits are at $8.7 billion. Major contenders in the field include but are not limited to: Oracle, IBM's DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, and Apache Hadoop.
The Oracle Database was created in 1977 by Larry Ellison, Bob Minter, and Ed Oates as an object-relational database management system. The documentation of the system is referred to as a "shared memory realm" and the Oracle DBMS utilizes transaction history to hold the cache information within. It can also store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. Oracle stores its data logically through tables and in the physical form of datafiles and each instance of the brand utilizes a shared-memory area to control information and store data. The latest Oracle DBMS (12.1.0.02) comes as two different editions with one of them being the Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition (EE). This database edition of Oracle imposes zero limit on server resources and allows for add-on features. Concentration of the market for the genre of product is of medium or moderate level of concentration with Oracle Corp. being one of the four major players. In the market today, Oracle Corporation (ORCL) shares are worth $45.25 at a profit margin of 23.82%. Over the past five years, Oracle Corp. has had consistent revenue trends in the upper $30B range, with 2016 at $37.05B. Similarly, consistent growth trends are to be found with their gross income staying in the upper $20B range, with 2016 at $27.93B. Cost of Goods Sold with Depreciation and Amortization have decreased over the past five years, with 2016 at $9.12B. Net income for Oracle Corp. has a declining trend with 2016 being at $8.9B.
IBM's DB2 is an object-relational database server with roots in the 1970s. It was created at IBM by Edgar F. Codd who published the theory of relational databases and the model for data manipulation. DB2 was first released by IBM in 1983 on their MVS mainframe platform. When it first came out, the DB2 software was exclusive to only IBM mainframe technology but later in the 1990s, IBM branched it out to be compatible with UNIX, Windows, Linux, OS/2, and PDA. The latest version of DB2 was released in June of 2016. DB2 can be managed from the command-line or from a GUI. Concentration of the market for the genre of product is of medium or moderate level of concentration with International Business Machine Corp. being one of the four major players. In the market today, International Business Machines (IBM) shares are worth $158.70 at a profit margin of 14.62%. Over the past five years, IBM. has had declining revenue trends with 2016 at $79.92B. Similarly, consistent growth trends are to be found with their gross income with 2016 at $37.59B. Cost of Goods Sold with Depreciation and Amortization has decreased over the past five years, with 2016 at $42.33B. Net income for IBM has a declining trend with 2016 being at $11.88B.
Microsoft SQL Server is a relational DBMS whose primary purpose is to retrieve and store data from other applications on the network. SQL Server was first released by Microsoft in 1989. SQL utilizes a Microsoft-defined operations format known as Tabular Data Stream (TDS) which is utilized to confer data between the client and the server. It stores its data in the traditional database table format and is able to support a variety of data types. In relation to enterprise DBMS, Microsoft offers the SQL Server Enterprise Edition that come with additional add-on services and can support databases as large as 524 petabytes with 12 terabytes of memory and can support 640 logical processors. Concentration of the market for the genre of product is of medium or moderate level of concentration with Microsoft Corp. being one of the four major players. In the market today, Microsoft (MSFT) shares are worth $69.92 at a profit margin of 21.59%. Over the past five years, Microsoft has had increasing revenue trends with 2016 at $84.7B. Decreasing trends are to be found with their gross income with 2016 at $51.923B. Cost of Goods Sold with Depreciation and Amortization have increased over the past five years, with 2016 at $37.78B. Net income for Microsoft has been stable with 2016 being at $16.8B.
Apache Hadoop is an open-source big data software framework that is primarily written in Java with some native code written in C and the command line uses shell scripts. The software divides files into large blocks and then distributes them in clusters across nodes. It processes data in parallel by shifting packaged code into nodes to be processes in parallel. These processes allow the datasets in Hadoop to be processed more quickly and resourcefully. The Hadoop software has a variety of add-on which has been come to be known as an ecosystem, packages such at the Apache Pig, Apache Hive, Apache HBase, Apache Phoenix, Apache Spark, Apache ZooKeeper, Cloudera Impala, Apache Flume, Apache Sqoop, Apache Oozie, and Apache Storm. In the market today, Apache Corp. (APA) shares are worth $48.80 at a profit margin of -26.78%. Over the past five years, Apache Corp. has had declining revenue trends with 2016 at $5.37B. Similarly, consistent growth trends are to be found with their gross income, with 2016 at $426M. Cost of Goods Sold with Depreciation and Amortization have decreased over the past five years, with 2016 at $4.94B. Net income for Apache Corp. has a declining trend with 2016 being at -$1.37B.
Future predictions for the enterprise database management system industry show that revenues will rise 4.2% to $40.2B due to higher corporate demands for industry software over the next 5 years. Being that it is a relatively new industry that is considered to in its growth stage, analytics predicts that industry revenue will be annualized at the rate of 4.3% or $49.7B in 2022 due to the variety of small and large business pursuing the software and increasing their usage of IT to store and record their data. Over the next five years, it is predicted that small to mid-size businesses will begin to adopt enterprise software increasingly as benefits will open up their needs. IT has only recently migrated out of the traditional office setting and into environments throughout the economy, such as farms and grocery marts. This boost in the IT market is creating a rising tide of data. Leading enterprise software manufacturers will continue to acquire innovative technologies related to data mining as well as combine data mining technology with predictive analytics to provide business with insights as well as big data being a huge source of industry development. Industry jobs and wages are expected to increase for skilled software developers as the vendors who cater to the needs of this quickly expanding market will be the most successful in the end.