mobile phone

Cellular Technologies and Carriers

I. Introduction

 In the 21st century,the wireless communications tend to become the household name. Exploring the new age of digital cellular technology is parament. Around the entire world, the wireless carriers are rapidly building new cellular networks based on the internet of Things(IoT). What becomes much interesting is that the new networks will not work with the cell phones since they are made of the IoT devices that are yet to exist.The purpose of this paper is looking at the cellular technology breif history, GSM VS CDMA carriers, how they make money, carriers' market share, the impact of the cellular technology and carriers including future of the two technologies.

A. Brief History of Cellular Technology

 The cellular technology involves what the mobile phones' networks do and the technology leading to the mobile pones acquring the name cell phones. It comprises of servral smart interconnected trasmitters. According to BI et al.(2001), the cell phones idea has been in place since the 1920s with the very first mobile phone being created by Martin Cooper back in 1973. Martin created such a prototype that gave thity minutes talk-time nearly ten hours of charging. This period was about ten years before the Motorolla started the public sales of their phones and since then, sveral things have changed about the cell phones. They have become smaller and even now they have the ability to support multi-media like text messaging, phots, internet, and video. Curretley, cell phones have been incorporated into our daily life. Through the cell phones, it is now possible to listen to music, take pictures, use the internet, play games, and communicate with persons all frim a single dvice. In such countries like the United Kingdom and the United States, about 90 to 95% of the adults have mobile phones. About 65% tend to check their cell phones even when they do not vibrate or ring with 45% keeping their phones next to them while sleeping. Even when the cellphones have become vital in our lives,it is equally impossible to deny the advancement in cellular technology.

 The cellular technologyies have four generations labeled as 1G, 2G, then 3G, and 4G. The 1G began in the 1970s and happened to extend through the 1980s.. The mobile radiotelephones carried voice via the analog signals. The 2G came about in the early 1990s and carried voice using the digiital signals. The 3G stared in the 200s and focused on adding the higher speed of the data services. THe 4G began in 2008 focusing on real-time multimedia like TV prgram or the high-speed downlaod of videos. The 4G cell phones include the connection technologies like WIFI and the satellite (Bi et al., 2001).

B.  GSM vs CDMA carriers

 GSM (Global System for Mobile communications),and the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) are cellphine metworks in the United States. Both GSM and CDMA have networks supporting cellular and data. The US Mobile presently operates only the GSM network meaning that the unlocked phones from the other carriers of GSM shall work on the US mobile's network. On the contrary,CDMA carriers inclide the Sprint and Verizon. The CDMA carriers do not use the SIM cards and their phones are usually locked into thier single network. That is one cannot use the Verizon phone on the Sprint's network or even vice versa. The CDMA carriers by not allowing same time data and voice translate to a better rural network coverage as compared to the GSM (sEGAN,2015).

cellular carrier - ..T. Mobile Cellular carrier - at&t Cellular carrier- Verizon