An Operating system is a computer system software which manages and controls the hardware and software resources of a computing device, can be a computer or smart devices such as phones. The operating system also provides the required environment and services needed by installed programs to execute the common tasks and functionalities. It generally works as an intermediary between running programs and hardware of the computer or mobile device.
Some of the roles of the operating system are managing of inputs from users via input devices such as a keyboard, process it and generate out output through output devices such as speakers. The operating system also manages the memory and control peripheral devices to ensure users and different running programs share the available resources in an efficient fashion. Without the operating system, all programs will need methods to manage and run all their activities making them huge and having several points of failure (“What Is an Operating System (OS) and How Does It Work").
The operating system is made up of components such as the kernel which manages the hardware devices ensuring the CPU operates optimally providing the required resources to programs. The OS also has a process manager which controls and distributes resources to all background and active processes. The OS has a memory management unit that tracks and manage all the RAM, disk and CPU cache memories. Security is also achieved by the operating system by identifying which request should be executed and those that should not. It also monitors which user access a particular file and which changes were made to it. The operating system manages network activities such as sharing of resources and data via IP/TCP protocols.