3 Programming Languages

Three Major Programming Languages

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JAVASCRIPT

History of JavaScript

JavaScript is one of the most popular object-oriented progamming languages.It was created by Brendan Eich in the year 1995 while he was working at Netscape Communications. The prefix, Java, "suggests that JavaScript is somehow related to Java, that it is a subset or less capable version of Java." JavaScript was originally named as LiveScript, however was changed to JavaScript to create confusion betwenn Java and JavaScript. The suffix, script, "suggests that it is not a real programming language...but it is really a matter of specialization" (Cockford, n.d.).

Features of JavaScript

There are many features in JavaScript that make it distinct. Here are some of the most important features of this programming language. The first one is that it is browser friendly. When you have to use content that requires flash, the user must "install flash plugin in your broswer. But to use JavaScript, you don't have to use any plugin at all." This is due to the fact that "all browsers have accepted JavaScript as a scripting language for them and provides integrated support for it." Another feature of JavaScript is that it can be used on client side and server side. Since JavaScript "has access to Document object model of browser, you can actually change the structure of web pages at runtime." With this benefit, JavaScript can be used to add special effects to your webpages. Another feature of JavaScript is that it is an extremely functional programming language. In JavaScript, "function could be assigned to variables just like any other data types...and a function can accept another function as a parameter and can also return a function." With this being said, there is a way to have functions with no names, also making this programming style a very functional one. Lastly, JavaScript offers support for objects. JavaScript "supports most of the object-oriented concepts while being simple to learn and use" (Kamat, 2009).

Different Ways of Using JavaScript

There are different ways of using JavaScript. There is inline JavaScript which is between the body tag of html. There is internal JavaScript which is between the head tag of html. Then there is external JavaScript which is "writing JavaScript in a separate file with the extension .js" ("JavaScript", 2014).



C++

History of C++

C++ was created by Bjarne Stroustrup in the year 1979. Stroustrup designed this language while he was "working for AT&T Bell Labs, which eventually packaged and marketed it." Stroustrup released his book, "The C++ Programming Language" in 1986 and "after the release of Version 2.0 in 1989, C++ programming language was rapidly acknowleged as a serious, useful language." (Ezust, 2012).

Features of C++

There are many features in the C++ programming language. SOme of the most important ones are explained below. C++ is machine independent/portable. C programs in general "can be executed in many machines with little bit or no change. However, that does not make it platform-independent." Another feature is that it is a mid-level programming language. C++ is "used to develop system applications such as kernel, driver, etc. It also supports the feature of high level language," which is what makes it a mid-level language. Another feature of C++ is its memory management. With C++, it is able to "support the feature of dynamic memory allocation...and we can free the allocated memory at any time by calling the free() function." C++ also has the pointer feature. With this, the user can "directly interact with the memory by using the pointers." Pointers are used for memory, structures, functions, array, and more. Lastly, it is a compiler based programming language. This means that "without compilation no C++ program can be executred...so first we need to compile our program using compiler and then we can execute our program" ("C++", 2011).

Functions of C++

Also known as procedure or subroutine in other languages, we are now going to talk about the functions in C++ programming language. There are two different functions in this programming language. There is the library functions and the user-defined function. The library functions "are declared in the C++ header files such as ceil(x), cos(x), exp(x), etc." The user-defined functions are "functions which are created by the C++ programmer, so that they can user it many times. It reduces complexity of a big program and optimizes the code." ("C++",2011).



PYTHON

History of Python

Not to be confused with the deadly snake, Python is a relatively new programming language. It was released by Guido Van Rossum in the year 1991. Guido Van Rossum was working for CWI (Stichting Mathematisch Centrum) when he developed the language. The name of the programming language does not come from the name of the infamous reptile. Python "...got its name from a BBC comedy series from the 1970s, 'Monty Python's Flying Circus'." Guido Van Rossum was a fan of the Monty Python series and he was looking for a name that was "short, unique, and slightly mysterious," ("The Python Programming Language", 1997) so he chose the name Python.

Features of Python

There are many features in the Python programming language. Written below are few of the important ones. One of the biggest features is that this programming language is very simple. Some people say that "reading a good Python prgram feels almost like reading English, although very strict English. The pseudo-code nature of Python is one of its greatest strengths." The simplicity of this program "allows the user to concentrate on the solution to the problem rather than the language itself." Another feature of this programming language is that it is free and open source. This means that "you can freely distribute copies of this software, read its source code, make changes to it, use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things." Due to it being an open source program, "its has been created and constantly improved by a community who just want to see a better Python." Another feature of this language is that it is interpreted. Unline C++ which is a compiled language, "Python does not need compilation to binary. You just run the program directly from the source code." Python has the ability to switch the source code into bytecodes "...and then translates this into the native language of your computer and then runs it." This makes the user's life much easier beacause they will not have to "...worry about compiling the program, making sure that the proper libraries are linked and loaded, etc." Lastly, Python is a high-level language. This means that while writing Python programs, "you never need to bother about the low-level details such as managing the memory used by your program, etc." ("A Byte of Python", n.d.).

Functions of Python

Having functions in programming languages is a very common thing. Python has two different types of functions. There are built-in functions and user-defined functions. Built-in functions are "...part of Python packages and libraries, whereas user-defined functions are written by the developers to meet certain requirements." User-defined functions in Python mean that "...they only need to be written once, but they can be used multiple times." (Pal, 2016).



REFERENCES

1. Crockford, Douglas. "JavaScript: The World's Most Misunderstood Programming Language." Crockford.com, n.d., https://www.crockford.com/javascript/javascript.html.

2. Ezust, Alan. "A Brief History of C++." ICS.com, 2 Mar. 2012, https://www.ics.com/designpatterns/book/history.html.

3. Kamat, Anay. "4 Powerful Features of JavaScript Programming Language." Web Design Library, 9 Jul. 2009, https://www.webdesign.org/web-programming/javascript/4-powerful-features-of-javascript-programming-language.17008.html.

4. Pal, Kaushik. "User-Defined Education in Python." Codementor Community, 19 Jun. 2017, https://www.codementor.io/kaushikpal/user-defined-functions-in-python-8s7wyx8k2.

5. "C++." Java T Point, 2011, https://www.javatpoint.com/cpp-functions.

6. "JavaScript." Sitesbay, 2014, https://www.sitesbay.com/javascript/javascript-way-of-using.

7. "Features of Python." A Byte of Python, n.d., https://www.ibiblio.org/g2swap/byteofpython/read/features-of-python.html.

8. "The Python Programming Language." Python, 9 Dec. 1997, https://groups.engin.umd.umich.edu/CIS/course.des/cis400/python/python.html.