File1, 2, & 3 for ldawkins:



Smartphone, also spelled smart phone. mobile telephone with a display
screen (typically a liquid crystal display, or LCD), built-in personal
information management programs (such as an electronic calendar and address
book) typically found in a personal digital assistant (PDA), and an
operating system (OS) that allows other computer software to be installed
for web browsing, e-mail, music, video, and other applications. A
smartphone may be thought of as a handheld computer integrated within a
mobile telephone.

The first smartphone was designed by IBM and sold by BellSouth (formerly
part of the AT&T Corporation) in 1993. It included a touchscreen interface
for accessing its calendar, address book, calculator, and other functions.
As the market matured and solid-state computer memory and integrated
circuits became less expensive over the following decade, smartphones
became more computer-like, and more advanced services such as Internet
access became possible.

Advanced services became ubiquitous with the introduction of the
so-called  third-generation (3G) mobile phone networks in 2001. Before 3G,
most mobile phones could send and receive data at a rate sufficient for
telephone calls and text messages. Using 3G, communication takes place at
bit-rates high enough for sending a receiving photographs, video clips,
music files, e-mails, and more. More smartphone manufactueres license an
operating system, such as Microsoft's Windows Mobile OS, Symbian OS,
Google's Android OS, or Palm OS. Research in Motion's Blackberry and
Apple's iPhone have their own properietary systems.


Smartphones contain either a keyboard integrated with the telephone number
pad or a standard QWERTY keyboard for text messaging, e-mailing, and using
web browsers. Virtual keyboards can be integrated into a touch-screen
design. Smartphones often have a built-in camera for recording and
transmitting photographs and short videos. In addition, many smartphones
can access WiFI hot spots so that users can access VoIP rather than pay
cellular telephone transmission fees.

In the early 2010s, larger smartphones with screen sizes of at least 5.5
inches diagonal, dubbed "phlablets", began to achieve popularity, with the
2011 Samsung Galaxy Note series gaining notable wide adoption. In 2013,
Huawei launched the Huawei Mate series, sporting a 6.1 inch HD (1280x720)
IPS + LCD display, which was considered to be quite large at the time.
Some companies began to release smartphones in 2013 incorporating flexible
displays to create curved form factors, such as the Samsung Galaxy Round
and LG G Flex.

The growing capabilities of handheld devices and transmission protocols
have enabled a growing number of inventive and fanciful applications - for
instance, "augmented reality," in which a smartphone's global positioning
system (GPS) location chip can be used to overlay the phone's camera view
of a street scene with local tidbits of information, such as the identity
of stores, points of interest, or real estate listings.


A 2012 University of Southern California study found that unprotected
adolescent sexual activity was more common among owners of smartphones. A
study conducted by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Lighting
Research center concluded that smartphones, or any backlit devices, can
seriously affect sleep cycles. Some persons might become psychologically
attached to smartphones resulting in anxiety when separated from the
devices. A "smombie" is a walking person using a smartphone and not paying
attention as they walk, possibly risking an accident in the process, an
increasing social phenomenon. The issue of slow-moving smartphone users
led to the temporary creation of a "mobile lane" for walking in Chongqing,
China. The issue of distracted smartphone users led the city of Augsburd,
Germany to embed pedestrian traffic lights in the pavement.

Mobile phone use while driving - including calling, text messaging,
playing media, web browsing, gaming, using mapping apps or operating other
phone features - is common but controversial, since it is widely
considered dangerous due to what is known as distracted driving. Being
distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the
risk of accidents. In September 2010, the US National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration reported that 995 people were killed by drivers
distracted by phones. In March 2011 a US insurance company, State Farm
Insurance, announced the results of a study which showed 19% of drivers
surveyed accessed the Internet on a smartphone while driving.

A patent war between Samsung and Apple started when the latter claimed
that the original Galaxy S Android phone copied the interface - and
possibly the hardware - of Apple's iOS for the iPhone 3GS. There was  also
smartphone licensing and litigation involving Sony Mobile, Google, Apple,
Samsung, Microsoft, Nokia, Motorola, HTC, Huawei and ZTE, among others.
The conflict is part of the wider patent wars between multinational and
software corporations. To secure and increase market share, companies
granted a patent can sue to prevent competitors from using the methods the
parent covers. Since the 2010s the number of lawsuits, countersuits, and
trade complaints based on patends and designs in the market for
smartphones, and devices based on smartphone OSes such as Android and iOS,
has increased significantly. Initial suits, countersuits, rulings, license
agreements and other major events began in 2009 as the smartphone market
stated to grow more rapidly by 2012.

No lines are longer than 80 characters, TYVM. Other specified properties aren't being scored automatically at this time so this is not necessarily good news...