File1, 2, & 3 for kvamaraju:



zed tiles have been used in China since the Zhou Dynasty as a material for
roofs. During the Song Dynasty, the
manufacture of glazed tiles was standardized in Li Jie's Architecture
Standard. In the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, glazed tiles became ever more
popular for top-tier buildings, including palace halls in the Forbidden City,
and ceremonial temples (for example the Heavenly Temple).

There are two main types of Chinese glazed tiles: glazed tubular tile and
plate tile. Glazed tubular tiles are moulded into tube shape on a wooden mould,
then cut into halves along their length, producing two tubular tiles, each
semicircular in section. A tube-shaped clay mould can be cut into four equal
parts, with a cross section of a quarter of a circle, then glazed into a four
plate tile.

Glazed plate tiles are laid side by side across and overlapping each other. In
the Song Dynasty, the standard overlap was forty percent, which increased to
seventy percent in the Qing dynasty. With the Song-style forty-percent overlap,
it was not possible to have triple tile overlap, as there was a twenty-percent
gap between the first plate tile and the third plate tile. Hence, if a crack
developed in the second tile, water leakage was inevitable. On the other hand,
with the Qing dynasty style seventy-percent overlapping, the first plate tile
was overlapped seventy percent, forty percent, and ten percent by the second,
third and fourth tiles, respectively; thus even if the second and the third
tiles developed cracks, there would be no leakage.


Award for Best Short Story is a literary award assigned each year by the
Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) for science fiction or
fantasy short stories. A work of fiction is defined by the organization as a
short story if it is less than 7500 words; awards are also given out for longer
works in the categories of novel, novella, and novelette. To be eligible for
Nebula Award consideration a short story must be published in English in the
United States. Works published in English elsewhere in the world are also
eligible provided they are released on either a website or in an electronic
edition.[1] The Nebula Award for Best Short Story has been awarded annually
since 1966. The award has been described as one of "the most important of the
American science fiction awards" and "the science-fiction and fantasy
equivalent" of the Emmy Awards.[2][3]

Nebula Award nominees and winners are chosen by members of the SFWA, though the
authors of the nominees do not need to be a member. Works are nominated each
year between November 15 and February 15 by published
authors who are members of
the organization, and the six works that receive the most nominations then form
the final ballot, with additional nominees possible in the case of ties.
may then vote on the ballot throughout March, and the final results are
presented at the Nebula Awards ceremony in May. Authors are not permitted to
nominate their own works, and ties in the final vote are broken, if possible,
by the number of nominations the works received. Beginning with the 2009
the rules were changed to the current format. Prior to then, the eligibility
period for nominations was defined as one year after the publication date of
work, which allowed the possibility for works to be nominated in the calendar
year after their publication and then reach the final ballot in the calendar
year after that. Works were added to a preliminary ballot for the year if they
had ten or more nominations, which were then voted on to create a final ballot,
to which the SFWA organizing panel was also allowed to add an additional

During the 53 nomination years, 215 authors have had works nominated; 39 of
these have won, including co-authors. One of these authors, Lisa Tuttle,
her award, and in 1971 no winner was chosen as "no award" received the highest
number of votes. Harlan Ellison has won three times out of eight nominations,
both the highest number of wins and the highest number of nominations of any
author. Ten authors have won twice, with Karen Joy Fowler at seven and Gardner
Dozois at six having the next highest nomination count after Ellison. Michael
Swanwick has the most nominations for short story without winning at six, and
Howard Waldrop and Gene Wolfe are next with five each. No other author has been
nominated more than four times.


programs were initiated, one of which was proposed to directly confront the
United States' then-projected Advanced Tactical Fighter (that was to lead to
development of the F-22 Raptor and the YF-23 Black Widow II). This future
fighter was designated as Mnogofounksionalni Frontovoi Istrebitel (MFI)
(Multifunctional Frontline Fighter) and designed as a heavy multirole aircraft,
with air-supremacy utmost in the minds of the designers.[citation needed]

In response to the American X-32/F-35 project, Russia began the LFI program,
which would develop a fighter reminiscent of the X-32/F-35 with a single
without the capabilities of a true multirole aircraft.[citation needed] The LFI
(Lyogkiy Frontovoy Istrebitel, Light Frontline Fighter) project was intended to
develop a lightweight fighter with respectable air-to-ground capabilities.
Yakovlev proposed the Yak-43, an upgraded Yak-41 with a stealthier design and
more powerful engines. After neglecting the MFI competition, Sukhoi decided to
submit a design for the LFI called the S-37 (unrelated to the heavyweight
forward-swept wing fighter). This S-37 resembled the Gripen in that it had
canard foreplanes, a delta wing and one engine. Mikoyan entered the MiG 4.12.
MiG could not afford to develop both the MFI and LFI, so their LFI entry was
eventually withdrawn. Developed into Mikoyan LMFS.

Russia would later change the designation of the LFI project to LFS, making it
multirole aircraft with emphasis on ground attack capability. During the 1990s
the Russian military cancelled the LFS projects and continued with the MFI
project, with minimal funding, believing that it was more important than the
production of a light fighter aircraft. No advanced fighter successor to the
Su-27 and MiG-29 family has entered service. Sukhoi won the latest PAK FA
competition in 2002; the aircraft's first flight took place on 29 January 2010.

No lines are longer than 80 characters, TYVM. Other specified properties aren't being scored automatically at this time so this is not necessarily good news...